# bulk modulus of sponge

### Mesoscale elastic properties of marine sponge spicules ...

01/01/2016 The bulk modulus, K, adapted from Nye (1957) for a material with fiber symmetry (Cusack and Miller, 1979), is given by: (9) K =-2 c 13 2 + (c 11 + c 12) c 33 c 11 + c 12-4 c 13 + 2 c 33. For all calculations, we also assume an isotropic index of refraction. The refractive index of E. aspergillum has been measured cross-sectionally by Aizenberg et al. (2004). The refractive index varies from 1 ...

Get PriceEmail contact### Elastic improvement of carbon nanotube sponges by ...

01/09/2014 Our study is based on bulk-form CNT sponges consisting of three-dimensional nanotube networks as reported previously . ... By this way, the sponge modulus and strength can be tailored by 40-fold (from 0.12 to 4.86 MPa) and about 60-fold (0.016–0.99 MPa), respectively, when the average CNT diameter increases from 30 to 111 nm (Fig. 4e). With an even larger tube diameter (120 nm), the sponges ...

Get PriceEmail contact### Polydimethylsiloxane/Nanodiamond Composite Sponge for ...

modulus) or surface wettability of bulk PDMS and PDMS sponges simply by adding nanodiamond ﬁller with di erent surface terminations, either oxidized (oND) or hydrogenated (reduced, rND) nanodiamond. Minuscule amounts of oxidized nanodiamond particles as ﬁller showed to beneﬁt the compressive Young’s modulus of composite sponges with up to a 52% increase in its value, while the ...

Get PriceEmail contact### On the Bulk Modulus of Open Cell Foams

The bulk modulus of these foams is less than the prediction of theoretical models, as a result of inﬂ uence by wrinkles in the cell walls(14). Strength measurements(15) in hydrostatic compression have also been done on closed cell polymeric structural foam (Rohacell) in the evaluation of its crushing behavior. Related studies of strength have been conducted of multiaxial yield of aluminum ...

Get PriceEmail contact### Three-dimensionally bonded spongy graphene material

20/01/2015 Remarkably, this power dependence of Young’s modulus on ρ, while the sponge is being compressed to ~10% of initial height (that is, Y=Aρ n, where

Get PriceEmail contact### Materials Data Book

Shear Modulus G E 8 3 ≈ Bulk Modulus K ≈ E These approximations break down for rubber and porous solids. 5 STIFFNESS AND STRENGTH OF UNIDIRECTIONAL COMPOSITES EII = V f E f + (1 − V f )Em 1 1 − ⊥ − = + m f f f E V E V E f 1 m σts = V f σf + (− Vf)σy EII = composite modulus parallel to fibres (upper bound) E⊥ = composite modulus transverse to fibres (lower bound) Vf = volume ...

Get PriceEmail contact### Mesoscale elastic properties of marine sponge spicules ...

01/01/2016 The bulk modulus, K, adapted from Nye (1957) for a material with fiber symmetry (Cusack and Miller, 1979), is given by: (9) K =-2 c 13 2 + (c 11 + c 12) c 33 c 11 + c 12-4 c 13 + 2 c 33. For all calculations, we also assume an isotropic index of refraction. The refractive index of E. aspergillum has been measured cross-sectionally by Aizenberg et al. (2004). The refractive index varies from 1 ...

Get PriceEmail contact### What is Bulk Modulus, and When is it Important ...

• Average or secant bulk modulus is the slope of a line between any two points of the curve. That is: B s = (P 2 – P 1)V 0 /(V 1-V 2), or B s = ∆PV 0 /∆V. Because a line drawn between any two points appears as a chord of an arc, it is a secant, hence, the name secant bulk modulus. Before giving some typical values of fluid bulk modulii, we must take one more variable into consideration ...

Get PriceEmail contact### Elastic improvement of carbon nanotube sponges by ...

01/09/2014 Our study is based on bulk-form CNT sponges consisting of three-dimensional nanotube networks as reported previously . ... By this way, the sponge modulus and strength can be tailored by 40-fold (from 0.12 to 4.86 MPa) and about 60-fold (0.016–0.99 MPa), respectively, when the average CNT diameter increases from 30 to 111 nm (Fig. 4e). With an even larger tube diameter (120 nm), the sponges ...

Get PriceEmail contact### Materials Data Book

Shear Modulus G E 8 3 ≈ Bulk Modulus K ≈ E These approximations break down for rubber and porous solids. 5 STIFFNESS AND STRENGTH OF UNIDIRECTIONAL COMPOSITES EII = V f E f + (1 − V f )Em 1 1 − ⊥ − = + m f f f E V E V E f 1 m σts = V f σf + (− Vf)σy EII = composite modulus parallel to fibres (upper bound) E⊥ = composite modulus transverse to fibres (lower bound) Vf = volume ...

Get PriceEmail contact### Bulk Modulus and Fluid Elasticity - Engineering ToolBox

The Bulk Modulus Elasticity - or Volume Modulus - is a material property characterizing the compressibility of a fluid - how easy a unit volume of a fluid can be changed when changing the pressure working upon it. The Bulk Modulus Elasticity can be calculated as. K = - dp / (dV / V 0) = - (p 1 - p 0) / ((V 1 - V 0) / V 0) (1) where. K = Bulk Modulus of Elasticity (Pa, N/m 2) dp = differential ...

Get PriceEmail contact### What is Bulk Modulus? - Matmatch

The bulk modulus of a material is the inverse of its compressibility. So the compressibility of a material is a direct measurement of its bulk modulus. Compressibility c is given by the following equation [2]: `c=-\frac{1}{V}\frac{\d V}{\d P}` Changes in the specific gravity (the relative density) and temperature of a liquid can significantly affect its bulk modulus. The bulk modulus of most ...

Get PriceEmail contact### Polydimethylsiloxane/Nanodiamond Composite

Oxidized nanodiamond particles showed to improve the Young’s modulus of bulk PDMS and porous (sponge-like) PDMS by 20 and 52% (around 0.025 wt % of oND), respectively, while reduced nanodiamond particles showed to weaken the mechanical properties of PDMS slightly. This weakening was attributed to chain distortions, which apparently are also present at high concentrations of

Get PriceEmail contact### Bulk Modulus - The Lee Company

Bulk Modulus is a measure of the resistance of a fluid to compression. It is defined as the ratio of pressure stress to volumetric strain. The value of bulk modulus equals the pressure change x 100 required to cause a one percent change in volume. EXAMPLE: MIL-H-83282 oil has a bulk modulus of 3.0 x 10 5 psi. Thus, a pressure increase of 3000 ...

Get PriceEmail contact### Properties: Silicone Rubber - AZoM

Silicones are polymers with a Si-O-Si backbone. There are different types depending on functional groups in the structure and curing mechanisms. Key properties include thermal stability, chemical stability, electrical insulation and low toxicity. Main applications are flexible seals, o-rings etc.

Get PriceEmail contact### SPONGE Cakes Cake Delivery UK Birthday Cakes Vegan ...

Welcome to Sponge The Online Cake Company. We hand-make our Sponge Cakes Brownies in our bakery in Holt, Norfolk and offer cake delivery and brownie delivery anywhere in the UK, offering next day delivery as standard. We make our cakes with a lot of care and love using quality and local ingredients to ensure the highest standard of products for all of our customers and we are always adding ...

Get PriceEmail contact### On the Shrinkage and Stiffening of a Cellulose Sponge

We measure the volume and the bulk modulus of sponges at different water contents. Upon drying, the volume of the sponge decreases by more than half and its bulk modulus increases by almost two orders of magnitude. We develop a partially saturated microporomechanical model of the sponge undergoing finite transformations. The model compares well with the experimental data. We show that

Get PriceEmail contact### On the shrinkage and stiffening of a cellulose sponge upon ...

Upon drying, the volume of the sponge decreases by more than half and its bulk modulus increases by almost two orders of magnitude. We develop a partially saturated microporomechanical model of the sponge undergoing finite transformations. The model compares well with the experimental data. We show that about half of the stiffening of the sponge upon drying is due to geometrical nonlinearities ...

Get PriceEmail contact### Polydimethylsiloxane/Nanodiamond Composite Sponge for ...

modulus) or surface wettability of bulk PDMS and PDMS sponges simply by adding nanodiamond ﬁller with di erent surface terminations, either oxidized (oND) or hydrogenated (reduced, rND) nanodiamond. Minuscule amounts of oxidized nanodiamond particles as ﬁller showed to beneﬁt the compressive Young’s modulus of composite sponges with up to a 52% increase in its value, while the ...

Get PriceEmail contact### Three-dimensionally bonded spongy graphene material

20/01/2015 Remarkably, this power dependence of Young’s modulus on ρ, while the sponge is being compressed to ~10% of initial height (that is, Y=Aρ n, where

Get PriceEmail contact### Impact absorption properties of carbon fiber reinforced ...

improved the Young’s modulus of the CNT sponges by a factor of 6 [32], and increased the buckling load and energy absorption by a factor of 60 [34]. The fatigue resistance has also been improved by the graphene addition, where samples survived ∼2000 cycles at 60% strain and ∼1 million cycles at 2% strain without signiﬁcant permanent damage [32]. Though there have been many studies in ...

Get PriceEmail contact### Teaching-learning-based optimization of a composite ...

The sponge [see Fig. 1(c)] size was fixed to 10 mm 3, ... The equivalent sound velocity, the equivalent density, the equivalent bulk modulus, and the equivalent impedance of the composite metastructure exhibit physical properties different from homogeneous porous materials. The impedance tube test data and the sound absorption properties of the samples validate the design proposed in this work ...

Get PriceEmail contact### Introduction to the Governing Equations and Scope of

11/06/2018 where is the isothermal bulk modulus and ... Using a so-called sponge layer to mimic an infinite open problem can be an alternative to a boundary condition. This is a domain where outgoing waves are killed with little or no reflections. One such layer method is the well-known perfectly matched layer (PML). Other formulations also exist for time domain problems where real coordinate stretching ...

Get PriceEmail contact### A cube of sponge rubber with edge length 5 cm has a

Shear Modulus and Bulk Modulus. A cube of sponge rubber wit... physics. A cube of sponge rubber with edge length 5 cm has a force of 2 N applied horizontally to the top face (parallel to an edge) while the bottom face is held fixed. If the top face is displaced horizontally through a distance of 1 mm, find the shear modulus for the sponge rubber. A. S = 7 × 1 0 4 N m − 2. B. S = 6 × 1 0 4 ...

Get PriceEmail contact### Rock and Rock Mass Deformability (Compressibility ...

expansion (e.g.: a sponge). -For sandstones, ν~ 0.2-0.3-For shales, ν~ 0.3-0.4 ∆σ′ deformation ∆L radial dilation ∆L L L strain (ε) = ∆σ′ E = ε ∆r ∆L ∆r ν= Triaxial Test ©MBDCI 1-D Measuring Rock Properties 1D and 3D Compressibility ? Change in volume with a change in stress In 1-D compressibility, lateral strain, εh, = 0 Often used for flat-strata compaction analysi

Get PriceEmail contact### Titanium - Wikipedia

Bulk modulus: 110 GPa : Poisson ratio: 0.32 : Mohs hardness: 6.0 : Vickers hardness: 830–3420 MPa : Brinell hardness: 716–2770 MPa : CAS Number: 7440-32-6 : History; Discovery: William Gregor (1791) First isolation: Jöns Jakob Berzelius (1825) Named by: Martin Heinrich Klaproth (1795) Main isotopes of titanium; Isotope Abundance Half-life (t 1/2) Decay mode Product; 44 Ti syn: 63 y ...

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